Category: News Briefs - Original Written by AJ Williams, Chronicle Web Editor
The Board of State Canvassers unanimously voted Tuesday to certify Detroit’s primary election results, and yes, Mike Duggan was the winner of the Aug. 6 primary. Again.
In the end, Duggan got 48,716 votes compared to Benny Napoleon's 28,391.
Napoleon issued a statement after the announcement, saying:
"The state board of canvassers certification of Detroit's primary election with a result that is strikingly different than two previous counts by the city clerk and county clerk, respectively, gravely concerns me," said Benny N. Napoleon. "Whether Mr. Duggan receives 4,000 more votes or 10,000 more votes, the issue remains that we have problems with accurately counting the votes. How can we come up with three vote counts that are vastly different and be okay with this? "First and foremost, we must protect the sanctity of the vote. At a historic time when we face challenges to our democracy in this city, Detroit voters need to be assured -- beyond any doubt -- that their vote will be counted and counted accurately. A few weeks ago I called for federal oversight of the November 5thGeneral Election. I continue to stand on that request now more than ever. In the end, no matter who becomes the Mayor, the power of the vote must be honored and respected."
Last Updated on Wednesday, 04 September 2013 09:49
Category: Top News Written by Roz Edward, National Content Director
Ariel Castro, 53, the former Cleveland bus driver who pleaded guilty to raping and kidnapping Amanda Berry, 27,Gina Dejesus, 23, and Michelle Knight, 32, was found hanging in his prison cell at the Correction Reception Center in Orient, Ohio. His death is being reported as a suicide.
Last Updated on Wednesday, 04 September 2013 08:06
Category: News Briefs - Original Written by AJ Williams, Chronicle Web Editor
The state board of canvassers will be in Detroit on Tuesday to officially certify the Detroit mayoral primary election.
This follows a motion to the Appeals Court Friday filed by Michigan Attorney General Bill Schuette to have Ingham County Circuit Court Judge Joyce Draganchuk's temporary restraining order reversed.
Draganchuk's order was made Thursday and called for workers with the state Department of Elections to cease tabulations of uncounted write-in ballots from the city's contentious primary. A hearing on the order had been scheduled for Tuesday.
State canvassers will receive a summary report Tuesday on the write-in tabulations and certify the primary results.
Regardless of who the official primary winner is Benny Napoleon and Mike Duggan are still set to face off in the general election in November.
Last Updated on Tuesday, 03 September 2013 08:44
Category: News Briefs Written by CNN News
(CNN) - The federal government won't try to block state laws in Colorado and Washington that legalized marijuana for recreational use, Attorney General Eric Holder announced Thursday.
While federal law still makes the possession, production and sale of marijuana a crime, Holder's announcement means the Justice Department won't file lawsuits against state laws in Colorado and Washington that allow people to possess marijuana for personal use. Growing and selling marijuana remain illegal in those states.
Last Updated on Tuesday, 03 September 2013 08:04
Category: News Briefs Written by CNN News
(CNN) -- Former basketball star Dennis Rodman arrived in Pyongyang Tuesday on a five-day visit amid speculation he may try to negotiate the release of jailed U.S. citizen Kenneth Bae, China's Xinhua news agency reported.
In Beijing, the gateway for flights to Pyongyang, Rodman told Reuters he was on another "basketball diplomacy tour" and would not be discussing the release of Bae.
"I'm not going to North Korea to discuss freeing Kenneth Bae," Rodman told Reuters in a telephone interview before he left Beijing for Pyongyang. "I've come out here to see my friend (Kim) -- and I want to talk about basketball," he added.
Later pushing through a throng of journalists at Beijing airport, the 6 foot 7 inch (2.01 meter) former basketballer said: "I'm just trying to go over there to meet my friend Kim, the Marshal. Try to start a basketball league over there, something like that."
However, he told the Huffington Post last week that he would likely broach the issue with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un.
"I gave (Kim Jong-un) a great indication of when I'm going to Beijing soon -- that's just a hop, skip and a jump from North Korea. So basically, you know, I'm pretty sure I'll be talking to him soon," Rodman told the Huffington Post.
Rodman reveals North Korea secrets Imprisoned American's sister speaks out Rodman: Diplomat or naive?
"I will definitely ask for Kenneth Bae's release," he said. "I will say, 'Marshal, why is this guy held hostage?' I could try and soften it up in that way."
"If the Marshal says, 'Dennis, you know, do you want me to let him loose?' and then if I actually got him loose -- and I'm just saying this out the blue -- I'd be the most powerful guy in the world."
Rodman's trip -- which is being sponsored by Irish bookmaker Paddy Power -- is the second to the hardline Communist state this year. In March, Rodman was pictured with Kim, an ardent basketball fan, laughing and eating while watching an all-star basketball match.
He was criticized over the trip which came at a time of escalating tension, with North Korea threatening missile strikes on the U.S., South Korea and Japan.
Rodman has previously made no secret about his desire to help Bae. He once tweeted that he wanted the 30-year-old unchallenged leader of North Korea to "do him a solid" by freeing him.
Bae was sentenced to 15 years hard labor in February after he was convicted of unspecified "hostile acts" against North Korea. The country's state-run Korean Central News Agency said the Korean-American was arrested late last year after arriving as a tourist in Rason City, a northeastern port near the Chinese border.
North Korea last week canceled a "humanitarian mission" by Robert King, U.S. special envoy on North Korean human rights issues to Pyongyang, aimed at negotiating the release of Bae, citing annual military drills last week by the U.S. and South Korea.
Last Updated on Tuesday, 03 September 2013 07:49
Category: News Briefs Written by Roz Edward, National Content Director
Sickle cell anemia is increasing worldwide, and more than 400,000 babies will be born with the hereditary blood disorder in 2050, according to a new study.
In sickle cell anemia, red blood cells shaped like sickles, or crescent moons, can get stuck in small blood vessels around the body, blocking the flow of blood and oxygen.
The number of newborns with the disease is likely to increase from about 305,800 in 2010 to about 404,200 in 2050, researchers determined, using estimated country rates of sickle cell anemia and information on projected birth rates.
More information please visit
The U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has more about sickle cell anemia
Last Updated on Monday, 02 September 2013 08:33
Category: News Briefs Written by CNN News/Jim Polk and Alicia Stewart
"I have a dream this afternoon that my four little children will not come up in the same young days that I came up within, but they will be judged on the basis of the content of their character, not the color of their skin."
The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. spoke these words in 1963, but this was not the speech that would go down as one of the most important addresses in U.S. history.
King spoke these words in Detroit, two months before he addressed a crowd of nearly 250,000 with his resounding "I Have a Dream" speech at the March on Washington for Freedom and Jobs on August 28, 1963.
Several of King's staff members actually tried to discourage him from using the same "I have a dream" refrain again.
As we all know, that didn't happen. But how this pivotal speech was crafted is just one of several interesting facts about what is one of the most important moments in the 20th century in the United States:
MLK's speech almost didn't include "I have a dream"
King had suggested the familiar "Dream" speech that he used in Detroit for his address at the march, but his adviser the Rev. Wyatt Tee Walker called it "hackneyed and trite."
So, the night before the march, King's staff crafted a new speech, "Normalcy Never Again."
King was the last speaker to address the crowd in Washington that day. As he spoke, gospel singer Mahalia Jackson called out to King, "Tell 'em about the dream, Martin."
Then he paused and said, "I still have a dream."
Walker was out in the audience. "I said, 'Oh, s---.'"
"I thought it was a mistake to use that," Walker recalled. "But how wrong I was. It had never been used on a world stage before."
The rest, of course, is history.
The march almost didn't include any female speakers, either
It was only after pressure from Anna Arnold Hedgeman, the only woman on the national planning committee, that a "Tribute to Negro Women Fighters for Freedom" was added to the official program.
It took further convincing to have a woman lead it.
Daisy Bates spoke in the place of Myrlie Evers, the widow of slain civil rights leader Medgar Evers. Bates, president of the Arkansas NAACP who played a key role in integrating schools in Little Rock, told the crowd: "We will walk until we are free, until we can walk to any school and take our children to any school in the United States. And we will sit-on and we will kneel-in and we will lie-in if necessary until every Negro in America can vote. This we pledge to the women of America."
Earlier, Josephine Baker, an internationally known American entertainer who had moved to France to find fame, addressed the crowd. Dressed in a military jacket draped with medals for her contribution to French resistance in World War II, she spoke in very personal terms about freedom:
"You know I have always taken the rocky path. I never took the easy one, but as I get older, and as I knew I had the power and the strength, I took that rocky path, and I tried to smooth it out a little. I wanted to make it easier for you. I want you to have a chance at what I had. But I do not want you to have to run away to get it."
Women had been central to the civil rights movement -- Diane Nash, Ella Baker, Dorothy Height and many others -- but were only included in the program that day after one woman spoke up.
The most prominent white speaker was called the "white Martin Luther King"
Walter Reuther was the head of the United Automobile Workers, which provided office space, staff and funding for the march in Detroit and the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. He was the seventh speaker listed on the program, and shared his remarks to the crowd.
"We will not solve education or housing or public accommodations as long as millions of Negroes are treated as second-class economic citizens and denied jobs," he said.
In 1998, Time Magazine included him in its list of Builders & Titans Of The 20th Century. Irving Bluestone, Reuther's former administrative assistant, shared this popular story to explain who Reuther was at the March on Washington: "Standing close to the podium were two elderly women. As (Reuther) was introduced, one of the women was overheard asking her friend, 'Who is Walter Reuther?' The response: 'Walter Reuther? He's the white Martin Luther King.'"
An openly gay man organized the march in less than two months
Bayard Rustin is "the most important leader of the civil rights movement you probably have never heard of," as LZ Granderson put it in his recent CNN column. Not only did he organize the march in a matter of months, Rustin is credited with teaching King about nonviolence. He also helped raise funds for the Montgomery bus boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Council.
During the time, his sexual orientation was known, and he was often in the background to prevent it from being used against the movement.
Fifty years after the march, Rustin, who died in 1987, will be honored with a posthumous Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Obama in November.
It wasn't the first planned 'March on Washington'
Labor leader and civil rights advocate A. Philip Randolph had threatened a "March for Freedom" on the National Mall in 1941 to pressure then-President Franklin Roosevelt to provide equal opportunity for defense jobs. Randolph hired Rustin to organize part of the march, which they felt was the only way to prompt action after numerous appeals.
It worked: The march was called off after Roosevelt established the Fair Employment Practices Committee, abolishing racial discrimination in hiring.
The march was a Hollywood star-studded event
Popular actor and singer Harry Belafonte used his star power to help bring other celebrities to the March on Washington. Besides reaching out to the stars themselves, Belafonte went to many of the studio heads in Hollywood to get prominent actors and actresses temporarily released from their duties so they could participate.
He was successful. The Hollywood list of attendees that day read like a who's who of A-listers: Marlon Brando, Sidney Poitier, Lena Horne, Sammy Davis Jr., Charlton Heston and Burt Lancaster, who also gave a speech.
But having the Hollywood stars there wasn't just for show or for increased media attention. It also helped calm President John F. Kennedy's nerves about the march.
"I believe that their presence did a lot to assuage people who were preoccupied with the fact there could be violence," Belafonte said.
"One of the things that I said in my conversations with the Kennedys in discussing why they should be more yielding in their support of our demonstration was the fact that there would be such a presence of highly profiled artists -- that that alone would put anxiety to rest," he added.
"People would be looking at the occasion in a far more festive way."
One march worker fell asleep during MLK's speech
Back in 1963, college student Patricia Worthy took a job answering phones for the March on Washington's planning office. She had 10 phone lines to answer, and they rang from the time she walked in until she left for the day.
"I recall one day I'll never forget, I heard someone say, 'Where is this young lady who handles the phone?' And finally I looked up, and there he was -- Dr. King -- and he said, 'I want to meet this young lady. She has put me on the hold twice, and hung up on me once, and I want to know who she is.' "
Worthy said she was "so embarrassed," but then the civil rights icon gave her a hug.
By the day of the march, she was so tired, she dozed off and accidentally slept through the historic march and the "I Have a Dream" speech.
Everything worked out for her in the end: Worthy had a successful legal career and now teaches law at Howard University.
Another hitchhiked all the way from Alabama only to have MLK check in on him
Robert Avery and two of his friends hitchhiked nearly 700 miles from Gadsden, Alabama, to Washington to participate in the march.
Avery, who was 15 years old at the time, was no stranger to the dark side of the civil rights movement. A few months earlier, he was struck by a cattle prod wielded by Alabama police during anti-segregation demonstrations in Gadsden.
The three youths arrived in the nation's capital a week before the march after three days of hitchhiking, and they were put to work making signs for the event.
At one point, King walked in and asked for them. He had been in Gadsden the night before, and their parents had asked the civil rights leader to check on them.
King sat down with the three and talked to them for about 20 minutes, asking them about their dreams, Avery later recalled.
'I Have a Dream' beat JFK's 'Ask not what you can do' speech
There's no doubt that King's speech was the most memorable part of the March on Washington. It's still taught in school, and memorized by children, half a century later.
But how does it compare against other pivotal speeches by 20th century leaders, such as John F. Kennedy or Franklin D. Roosevelt?
Well, a panel of more than 130 scholars got together in 1999 to rate the best speeches of the 20th century and King's speech ranked No. 1.
What else have you learned about the march? Did anything surprise you? Share in the comments section below.
Last Updated on Wednesday, 28 August 2013 13:18
Category: News Briefs - Original Written by Bankole Thompson, Chronicle Senior Editor
About 20 shootings in Detroit greeted the week of the unveiling of 10 new EMS ambulances and 15 new police cars to Police Chief James Craig and Fire Commissioner Donald Austin, signaling the level of public safety challenge that the city faces even as the private sector stepped in with new vehicles to help combat crime in the city.
The vehicles are the first group to be put into service, thanks to an $8 million donation from Detroit’s business community to strengthen public safety in the city. The remaining 13 EMS units are expected to be outfitted and ready for delivery before the end of this year. Another 85 patrol cars will be rolled out as the vehicles get equipped.
“Our corporate and philanthropic community stepped up to help our city in the midst of unprecedented financial challenges,” said Mayor Bing. “Reducing crime and improving emergency response times have always been a priority for my administration. The new vehicles being delivered today to the police and fire departments are state-of-the-art and will greatly improve public safety and the quality of service that we provide to our citizens.”
The 25 new public safety vehicles made their debut in a procession down Woodward Avenue in downtown Detroit, culminating with a news conference by Mayor Bing and Penske Corporation Chairman and Downtown Detroit Partnership Vice Chairman Roger Penske. Representatives from the corporations and foundations that contributed to the Mayor’s Active and Safe Campaign rode in the public safety vehicles.
“This is an extraordinary day for the city of Detroit,” said Roger Penske. “We are proud to offer new police cruisers and EMS units to Mayor Bing and the Police and Fire Departments. I want to offer my special thanks to the local business leaders and the Downtown Detroit Partnership for their outstanding efforts in helping us reach this milestone today. These vehicles will enhance the visibility of the police and fire efforts in the city, improve the safety and security of our neighborhoods and will provide an immediate positive impact on our city. “
The city’s entire fleet of 23 EMS ambulances is being replaced at a cost of approximately $161,000 per vehicle. The EMS units are being built by Horton Ambulance on the International Terra Star Chassis. Each ambulance takes up to 100 days to build. The Terra Star units were ordered through a local dealer.
The 100 police cruisers were acquired through local Chevrolet, Chrysler/Jeep/Dodge and Ford dealerships, and a Detroit company is outfitting the vehicles according to City of Detroit specifications. The police cars cost from $45,000 to $50,000 each, depending on the make and model. The police vehicles presented today are Dodge Chargers, Ford Interceptors and Chevrolet Caprices.
In addition to Penske Corporation, the corporate and philanthropic donors working in conjunction with the Downtown Detroit Partnership are: Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, Chrysler Group, LLC, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Company, Quicken Loans, Inc., The Kresge Foundation, Platinum Equity, LLC. Shinola. FirstMerit Bank serves as the financial partner in this collaborative project.
Mayor Bing launched the Active and Safe Campaign with a goal of raising $60 million over three years for updated equipment, technology and training for the city’s first responders, as well as improved programming at Detroit’s recreation centers.
Last Updated on Wednesday, 28 August 2013 10:18
Category: News Briefs - Original Written by Bankole Thompson, Chronicle Senior Editor
In the last two months I’ve seen all sorts of e-mails and comments from “they are stealing the election” and “Detroit voters are being cheated” to “Detroit City Clerk Janice Winfrey is deep in with the White power structure to take our vote,” all carefully aimed at creating enough panic in the public to basically render the legitimate voice of Detroiters at the ballot box meaningless or useless.
With such comments it begs the question: What is the point of convincing a voter in the city that their vote will count in the general election?
If such highly irresponsible opinions or comments seriously missing the facts are being circulated as legitimate arguments or points of contention to raise legitimate issues with the electoral process, it creates even more panic for the average person.
And it is still more troubling when such accusations, without shred of evidence or merit, are coming from individuals who carry some influence in the political process.
Granted voter intimidation is real, and voter fraud is all too common in the long protracted struggle of the African American political experience and the continued fight for voting rights. While it is titillating to wallow and wriggle in conspiracy theories and whispers about the political power structure because it makes for great gossip over dinner table, let us not put Detroit in the Mississippi column so quickly when the facts do not bare that out.
Let’s not begin to define Detroit as the Florida of our current political dispensation when the evidence in support of such polemic political sentiment is far-fetched. It’s easier to make highly and explosive charges of voter fraud in Detroit than it is to look for the facts and the details that would suggest such massive alleged irregularities.
But while there are valid issues with the electoral process as evidenced by past and some present legal challenges, it does not amount to the grand conspiracy that there is a concerted effort by the power structure to steal the vote in Detroit.
Yes, our institutions like the Detroit Department of Elections are not perfect, but it does not excuse this body that is supposed to function with electoral integrity to ensure that not only should every vote count but that the process through which votes are counted is fair and clean. And it is one that should extol the virtues of the rule of law, democracy and good governance.
Whenever there is semblance of irregularity it needs to be challenged. But challenging some of the irregularities that are often common features of the electoral process should not qualify anyone to conclude that Detroit is the new North Carolina, the Southern state that has demonstrated in the eyes of the nation a deliberate effort to suppress the vote of African Americans.
This style of political conversation is profitable and we see how news organizations like Fox News have built an empire out of political conspiracy fed by a well-oiled propaganda machine that has sought to make President Obama the anti-Christ and the one who is making America un-American.
The political stardom of the Glenn Becks of the world was built squarely on the altar of conspiracy theories, feeding into people’s minds what doesn’t exist, but what makes them scared. And innocent-information-seeking-minds kept worshiping on the altar of demagoguery, clamoring for more because they didn’t know any better.
But in Detroit we owe it to ourselves and in the interest of civic discourse and honest political engagement to spare the general election of the circus of political conspiracy. We owe it to the guardians of voting rights and the legacies of men and women of mark who fought to ensure that the Black vote carried the same weight as that of their White counterpart to guarantee that every vote counts.
Thus, to dismiss about 20,000 votes that were cast in the primary election on the basis of lacking procedural marks clearly flies in the face of protecting voting rights.
What message does it send to the world in disqualifying thousands of votes cast when those votes are not being disputed, rather it’s the process of marking the ballot boxes that are in dispute?
But since full blown conspiracy theory has it that there is an all-out effort to steal the election, it appears plausible to call into question the legitimacy of those votes that were actually cast even when the issue is the fact that the boxes containing the votes were missing the required hash marks, a process by which the votes are counted on poll books. In this case the 20,000 votes at issue were entered without the hash marks, leaving the matter as a numerical discrepancy, not a voter discrepancy.
And since race is at the center of this mayoral election where Mike Duggan, a White candidate, is up against Benny Napoleon, the African American candidate, it is all the more interesting as those thousands of votes which belonged to Duggan are now being called into question. If the votes are tossed out, Napoleon would be the winner of the election as opposed to the primary write-in candidate Duggan.
And lawyers for Wayne County Clerk Cathy Garrett made a stunning recommendation last week that because of the absence of hash marks, the thousands of votes should be invalidated as a recommendation to the Wayne County Board of Canvassers which rejected the recommendation of nullifying of the primary votes, because of the absence of hash marks which is not a state law.
Clearly, Detroit City Clerk Janice Winfrey has an obligation to ensure that poll workers follow the recommendation of using hash marks, and if they didn’t those poll workers at the precincts involved in this case should be fired and never used again in future elections. Some can call it a dereliction of duty on the part of the election department, but those who were delegated this assignment at the precincts in question to maintain voting integrity have an obligation as well to carry out their assignments faithfully.
The election snafu led to an exchange of barbs between two of Detroit’s most influential female political leaders.
Winfrey did not see any reason why the votes shouldn’t be counted since they are legitimate votes, and Garrett simply stood by a policy, not law, that only ballots with hash marks should be counted. But the battle goes beyond the flap between Winfrey and Garrett, and some, including the Duggan campaign, have suggested that there is a deliberate attempt to meddle with Detroit’s democracy by those who opposed Duggan’s candidacy.
Clerk Garrett’s brother is the powerful union boss Al Garrett who runs AFSCME Local 25, which has funded labor activist Robert Davis, the man who has challenged almost every issue in the public domain in court today. And Davis, who has long set his eyes on Duggan and successfully knocked him off the Detroit ballot twice, which forced supporters of Duggan to push for a write-in campaign, is now calling for the invalidation of the 20,000 votes cast for Duggan because of the lack of hash marks. Davis has indicted by the federal government on charges of stealing money from Highland Park’s school board. He has maintained his innocence while awaiting trial.
Clerk Winfrey’s husband, Tyrone Winfrey, a former member of the Detroit Board of Education, is the chief of staff to the Education Achievement Authority (EAA), an effort that was birthed by Gov. Rick Snyder to address the plight of failing students and whose funding model has drawn the ire of some education activists, including Davis, since it was set up.
Thus the power dynamics and political relationships, whether involved or not behind the personalities of the political leaders in this case, continue to feed the work of the conspiracy theorists about the elections in Detroit.
“Election administrators should be people who are ready to lay down their lives to preserve or protect 20,000 votes,” said Vince Keenan, the founder of Publius, the reputable voter information site. “The votes are not in question. So far as anybody knows at this point these are legitimately cast votes and someone made the recommendation to discount them.”
Keenan said there is no historical precedent for eliminating that many votes because “the crux of the problem is not who the votes were for…the crux of the problem began when it became apparent that there has been a procedural issue in the way the votes were counted.”
But the votes could have been easily verified by hand counting the ballots or doing whatever is needed to satisfy the electoral process. Now the issue goes to the state where the election director, Chris Thomas, has already signaled that it is unheard of to discount that many votes in a dispute that only has to do with hash marks.
“You simply don’t throw out the will of the people on a procedural win,” Keenan explained. “Cathy Garrett generally has a reputation for this. The question is who made this call (to invalidate the votes) and how did this seem like a satisfactory remedy?”
But here is the other problem. The lack of trust in Detroit government allows for conspiracies around election takeovers to thrive and to be seen as credible discourse in the overall political wellbeing of the city.
“Part of what has happened here is we have created a toxic environment where regular challenges over minor issues are allowed to cast a shadow of doubt over the electoral process,” Keenan said. “It is a toxic environment for the function of democracy. We are more concerned theoretically with the idea of an emergency manager disenfranchising the people than actually counting votes.”
Procedures have to be followed in elections, which is why some have gone to the point of calling for a Department of Justice investigation into the Detroit primary election when it is not even clear if this procedural dispute merits the involvement of a DOJ investigation.
“If it turns out that mistakes have been made in the counting of ballots after votes are legitimately cast, then we have a standard to uphold because that cast ballot deserves the utmost priority in terms of tabulation in determining what that voter contributed to in the election.”
Both Duggan and Napoleon have expressed the desire to have votes counted fairly, even as the latter called for a DOJ investigation. And Winfrey, according to Keenan, “adapted to what was anticipated to be a large write-in vote. It would have been great if tabulation marks have been used. But at some level she did.”
And let’s take the conspiracy theory off the table and deal with the facts only as they evolve in the court of law and in the court of public opinion. The State Board of Canvassers has ordered the write-in votes to be counted, which is what Wayne County should have done.
Last Updated on Wednesday, 28 August 2013 10:16
Category: News Briefs Written by The Urban Daily
Trayvon Martin’s mother Sybrina Fulton recently visited Hot 105 in L.A. where it was revealed that she recorded a song with gospel Hip Hop artist T-Dogg, which was created to let people going through the things that she has been through know they are not alone.
Last Updated on Monday, 26 August 2013 09:54
Digital Daily Signup
Sign up now for the Michigan Chronicle Digital Daily newsletter!